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The growth and development of children has been shown to hugely influence how a baby interacts with the world as an adult. Long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences are evidence in itself of the importance of a healthy environment and interactions. These questions will test your knowledge of the basics of child development.

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Child Growth and Development 1

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Question 1
The 1001 critical days is defined as which time period for building optimal security and healthy brain development?
A
Birth to 2 years
B
Birth to 18 months
C
Conception to 2 years
D
1001 days after birth
E
Conception to 18 months
Question 1 Explanation: 
The 1001 critical days is defined as the time between conception and 2 years for building optimal security and healthy brain development. It is a time where the baby's brain is shaped and hugely influenced by their experiences, interactions with their caregivers, and crucially, lays foudations for their future development.
Question 2
What is the main cause for the increase in weight of a developing baby's brain?
A
Demyelination and synaptogenesis
B
Increase in water weight
C
Demyelination and synapse degeneration
D
Myelination and synpatogenesis
E
Myelination and synapse degeneration
Question 2 Explanation: 
A baby's brain increases from ~400g to ~1000g from birth to 1 year old. This occurs as a result of myelination and synpatogenesis.
Question 3
Which of these accurately defines experience-expectant mechanisms?
A
The way in which the unique experiences of each individual baby produce distinctive wiring of their brain. It is not dependent on the relationship between the dyad.
B
The environmental input that all members of a species experience, and these experiences play a necessary part in organising a fully developed nervous system.
C
The way in which the unique experiences of each individual baby produce distinctive wiring of their brain. It is dependent on the relationship between the dyad.
D
The environmental input that all members of a species experience, and these experiences play a necessary part in organising the developing nervous system.
E
The way in which the unique experience of each individual contribute to the dyad and its impact on the developing nervous system.
Question 4
Which of the following correctly states when the fontanelles should be closed by:
A
Anterior fontanelle at 2-3 months and Posterior fontanelle at 18 months
B
Posterior fontanelle at 2-3 months and Anterior fontanelle at 18 months
C
Anterior fontanelle at 1 month and posterior fontanelle at 24 months
D
Posterior fontanelle at 18 months and Anterior fontanelle at 1 month
E
Anterior fontanelle at 2-3 months and posterior fontanelle at 24 months
Question 5
Infants with a secure attachment to their parents have optimal functioning over which of these domains?
A
Emotional
B
Social
C
Behaviouoral adjustment
D
School achievement
E
Peer-related social status
Question 5 Explanation: 
Securely attached infants show optimal functioning across all of these domains.
Question 6
By what age does an infant usually experience their first 'true' emotional reaction based on subjective experience?
A
1 month
B
6 weeks
C
3 months
D
6 months
E
9 months
Question 6 Explanation: 
A true emotional reaction based on subjective experience is one that is a psycho-physiological response, as opposd to a purely physiological response that babies experience before this.
Question 7
If a child shows the ability to have purposeful communication and the planning of thoughts and actions, they are showing domain 2 of who's model of self regulation?
A
Piaget's
B
Stage theories
C
DeGangi's
D
Erickson's
E
Trust versus Mistrust
Question 7 Explanation: 
DeGangi's model of self regulation in children has 2 levels: Level 1 = Homeostasis (i.e. takes cues from the environment around them) Level 2 = Purposeful communication and the planning of thoughts and actions
Question 8
The quality of interactions betewen parents and infants is determined by which factors?
A
Matchedness
B
Emotional tone
C
Predictability
D
Interactive repair
E
Rhythm
Question 8 Explanation: 
Interactions are defied as the bi-direction to-and-fro of exchanges between individuals. The quality of these interactions are determined by factors such as emotional tone, rhythm, matchedness and interactive repair. Predictability is one of the 3 dimensions of interactional behaviour that should be kept in mind when observing parent-infant interactions. The other 2 dimensions include engagement and genuineness.
Question 9
A 9 month old baby attends the GP practice with her mother for a general check up. What physical paramters of growth should the GP measure to assess the growth of the baby?
A
Weight
B
Length
C
Height
D
Occipito-frontal circumference
E
Abdominal circumference
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