🤔 MEDIUM

Seven questions to test your knowledge of some of the fundamental stages involved in the development of sperm and eggs. 

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Gametogenesis

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Question 1
From where/what do germ cells originate from during embryogenesis?
A
Intermediate mesoderm
B
Mesodermal epithelium
C
Extraembryonic mesoderm
D
Yolk sac
E
Epiblast
Question 1 Explanation: 
Primordial germ cells develop in the yolk sac and migrate to the intermediate mesoderm and mesodermal epithelium. The genitourinary system develops from the intermediate mesoderm. The extraembryonic mesoderm is associated with structures that go on to form the placenta.
Question 2
At what stage of meiosis are oocytes held in until puberty?
A
Prophase I
B
Metaphase I
C
Telophase I
D
Metaphase II
E
Anaphase I
Question 2 Explanation: 
At birth, approximately 2 million oogonia will have started meiosis to form primary oocytes. Further development of these primary oocytes is then stalled and the cells remain in prophase I until they start developing and dividing further during puberty.
Question 3
Which two cell types line the seminiferous tubules?
A
Leydig cells and Sertoli cells
B
Spermatogonia and Sertoli cells
C
Spermatocytes and Leydig cells
D
Spermatocytes and spermatagonia
E
Spermatocytes and Sertoli cells
Question 3 Explanation: 
Leydig cells are found inbetween the seminiferous tubules and secrete testosterone that stimulates the Sertoli cells. Spermatocytes develop from the spermatogonia.
Question 4
During spermatogenesis, what cell type is produced after meiosis II?
A
Spermatozoan
B
Secondary spermatocyte
C
Sperm
D
Spermatogonion
E
Spermatid
Question 4 Explanation: 
The spermatid cells are the haploid cells that develop into spermatozoa (aka sperm) via the process of spermiogenesis.
Question 5
During development, the oogonia are surrounded by other ovarian cells to form what structure?
A
Stromal cell
B
Primary follicle
C
Primordial follicle
D
Polar body
E
Ovum
Question 5 Explanation: 
The oogonium is surrounded by specialised stromal cells called granulosa cells to form the primordial follicle. When the oogonium develops into an oocyte, this follicle is then called the primary follicle. The polar bodies are the artefacts of meiosis.
Question 6
Gonadotrophin releasing hormone acts on what endocrine gland?
A
Anterior pituitary gland
B
Posterior pituitary gland
C
Gonads
D
Thyroid gland
E
Uterus
Question 6 Explanation: 
The APG produces luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone.
Question 7
What is the outer layer of a mature ovum called that must be penetrated by the spermatozoa?
A
Acrosome
B
Stroma
C
Zona pellucida
D
Theca externa
E
Oophorus
Question 7 Explanation: 
The zona pellucida is a glycoprotein layer that surrounds the ovum after ovulation. The acrosome at the head of the sperm secretes digestive enzymes to break through this. Stromal cells, the theca externa and oophorus are all structures that surround the ovum in the latter stages of follicular development.
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