Welcome to MedGuide’s premedical series of content.  Here you will find a collection of videos and MCQs. Make your own notes, at your own pace, with the videos and then have a crack at the questions – don’t worry, all questions are answerable from the video content.  Best of luck! 

  1. Be able to describe the constituents of a blood vessel wall
  2. Be able to distinguish artery and veins based on wall examination
  3. Understand the arrangement of the vascular tree in humans
  4. Outline how blood vessels are anatomically, and functionally, classified
  5. Discuss the gross arrangement of heart chambers and valves
  6. Outline the composition of the human lungs including their connection to the heart
  7. Understand the flow of air through the tracheobronchial tree
  8. Understand the anatomic underpinning of the cardiovascular and respiratory auscultation examination of the thorax

PreMed: Part Three

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Question 1
Which of the following is not a layer of an arterial wall?
A
Tunica superficialis
B
Tunica interna
C
Tunica media
D
Tunica adventitia
Question 2
Immediately superficial to the muscular layer of the venous wall is … 
A
Tunica interna
B
Tunica media
C
Tunica lumina
D
Tunica adventitia
Question 3
Atheroma deposition lies in which blood vessel wall plane?
A
Deep to the tunica interna
B
Between the tunica interna and media
C
Between the tunica media and externa
D
Superficial to the tunica externa
Question 3 Explanation: 
There are three tunica: intima, media and externa. The atheroma deposits beneath the intima, in the "subintimal" space.
Question 4
Which best describes the difference between the walls of arteries and veins?
A
Veins contain no tunica externa
B
Veins contain more tunica externa
C
Veins contain less of all layers
D
Veins contain an additional layer of tunica interna
Question 4 Explanation: 
The tunica intima, media and externa are present in both arteries and veins, but there is notably less of each in the vein.
Question 5
Complete the following list: artery, ______, capillary, venule and vein
A
Capacitance
B
Vessel
C
Arteriole
D
Venuiole
E
Branched artery
Question 5 Explanation: 
This is the classic configuration of the blood vascular tree.
Question 6
Which of the following is a “distributive” vessel?
A
Artery
B
Arteriole
C
Capillary
D
Venule
E
Vein
Question 6 Explanation: 
Arteries are distributive, arterioles are resistant, capillaries are exchange and veins/venules are capacitance vessels.
Question 7
Which of the following is a resistant vessel?
A
Artery
B
Arteriole
C
Capillary
D
Venule
E
Vein
Question 8
Which of the following is an exchange vessel?
A
Artery
B
Arteriole
C
Capillary
D
Venule
E
Vein
Question 9
Venous blood from the lung returns to the heart via the ...
A
Right ventricle
B
Right atrium
C
Left ventricle
D
Left atrium
Question 9 Explanation: 
Note that this is the weird, paradoxical seeming venous blood (as it travels in pulmonary veins) that is, in fact, oxygen RICH!
Question 10
Venous blood from the body returns to the heart via ...
A
Right atrium
B
Right ventricle
C
Left atrium
D
Left ventricle
Question 10 Explanation: 
Which receives the superior and inferior vena cava and the cardiac veins.
Question 11
The valve between the right atrium and ventricle is termed the … 
A
Aortic
B
Pulmonary
C
Semilunar
D
Tricuspid
E
Mitral
Question 11 Explanation: 
The atrioventricular valves are termed the tricuspid and mitral valves
Question 12
The right ventricular outflow passes blood toward the …
A
Right atrium
B
Left atrium
C
Body
D
Lung
Question 13
The semilunar valves are located ...
A
Between the right atrium and ventricle
B
Between the left atrium and ventricle
C
Guarding the inflow to the left atrium
D
Between the ventricle and great vessels
Question 13 Explanation: 
The SL valves are termed aortic or pulmonary depending on if they guard the aorta or pulmonary trunk respectively.
Question 14
Air passes from the mouth and nasal cavity into which area immediately?
A
Pharynx
B
Larynx
C
Trachea
D
Oesophagus
Question 14 Explanation: 
The oral and nasal cavities are bound posteriorly by the pharynx
Question 15
Which is the best definition of the region anterior to the inferior-most pharynx?
A
A region into which food is usually swallowed
B
The region used for smell
C
The region used for taste
D
The region containing the vocal folds
Question 15 Explanation: 
The larynx is anterior to the laryngopharynx (which is the inferior most portion of it). Within the larynx lie the vocal folds.
Question 16
The right lung contains how many lobes?
A
1
B
2
C
3
D
4
E
5
Question 16 Explanation: 
The right lung has three lobes, the left has two lobes.
Question 17
Which of the following is not a lung fissure?
A
The right oblique fissure
B
The right horizontal fissure
C
The left oblique fissure
D
The left horizontal fissure
Question 17 Explanation: 
The left only has an oblique fissure. The right, however, has an oblique and a horizontal fissure.
Question 18
The trachea divides distally into the ...
A
Larynx
B
Bronchioles
C
Oesophagus
D
Lungs
E
Bronchus
Question 18 Explanation: 
The primary bronchus of the trachea are formed when the latter trachea bifurcates at the level of T4.
Question 19
The right oblique fissure divides which two lobes?
A
Superior and inferior
B
Superior and middle
C
Superior and inferior
D
Middle and inferior
Question 20
Where is the mitral valve?
A
Between the inferior vena cava and the right atrium
B
Between the right atrium and ventricle
C
Between the left atrium and ventricle
D
Guarding the outflow to the aorta
Question 20 Explanation: 
The mitral valve is the atrioventricular valve separating the left atrium from the left ventricle.
Question 21
What is the best position to listen to the right middle lobe of the lung?
A
Anterior
B
Lateral
C
Posterior
D
Superior
Question 21 Explanation: 
The superior lobe is best heard anteriorly, the middle laterally and the inferior posteriorly. Thus you should always, for best practice, listen to the front of the chest and the back - many doctors shortcut and just do the back.
Question 22
Why would you ask a patient to say “99” whilst auscultating?
A
To test heart valve beat strength
B
To test patency of valves
C
To assess for fremitus
D
To assess for rheumatic fever of the mitral valve
Question 23
What would absence of breath sounds indicate on auscultation of the lung fields?
A
Pneumothorax
B
Haemothorax
C
Asthma
D
Pneumonia
Question 23 Explanation: 
Air in the pleural cavity collapsing a lung would mean that the lung tissue cannot expand into that region and thus there would be an absence of breath sounds.
Question 24
How many valves are you auscultating when performing a cardiovascular examination?
A
3
B
4
C
5
D
6
E
7
Question 24 Explanation: 
There are two atrioventricular valves and two semilunar vales.
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