Without a keen understanding of pertinent anatomy and physiology, students will struggle to apply pathology and pharmacology throughout their training and practice. MedGuide are happy to introduce this series of MCQ sets comprising core clinically-relevant physiology pulled from many sources common to the medical school undergraduate. We hope this allows you to test your knowledge, and apply synoptic links to some key preclinical conditions you will encounter as a practising healthcare professional.
Gastrointestinal Clinical Correlates Part II
Stem 1 of 5
A 57 year-old female presents with heartburn on lying down and occasional regurgitation. A lifelong smoker, like her parents, she states her mother died of oesophageal cancer. Physical examination is normal and history contains GORD diagnosis three years previously.Distal oesophageal mucosa changes are noted on biopsy. Which of the below definitions best describe what is expected on pathology report?
Abnormal, excessive growth escaping regular control mechanisms
A premalignant abnormal growth
A premalignant excessive growth
A reversible change in cell growth/function
Stem 2 of 5What is the most likely change to physical examination were this condition to be left untreated?
Increase in appetite
Stem 3 of 5What is the anatomic origin of the pain referral from this region?
Stem 4 of 5What is the mechanism of the medication that the patient is likely to have been placed on at onset of moderate GORD-related symptoms?
A polysaccharide, insoluble raft
A neutraliser of stomach acid pH
A histamine receptor antagonism
An irreversible proton pump inhibitor
Stem 5 of 5Which of the following lifestyle advice options would you give to the patient?
Eat more fatty food
Drink less hot drinks
Exercise should be kept to a minimum
Stem 1 of 5
A patient presents with GORD symptoms for three months. His physical examination is unremarkable save bowel sounds heard by the left lower lung base.Which of the below differentials best match the above presentation?
Indirect inguinal hernia
Petit's triangle hernia
Direct inguinal hernia
Stem 2 of 5An anterior plexus is damaged by the hernia in question. Which of the following consequences may result from such a lesion?
Increased colonic movement
Decreased action of the lower oesophageal sphincter
A decreased activation of parietal cells
An increased agonism of gastrin cell receptors
Stem 3 of 5During surgery to repair, the surgeon is careful to protect the arterial supply to the portion of gut tube herniating through the orifice. What is the origin of those arteries?
Right gastric artery
Left gastroomental artery
Direct off the coeliac trunk
Stem 4 of 5What vertebral level has the hernia occurred at?
Stem 5 of 5Which of the below are the least likely presentation of a patient with the diagnosis of hiatus hernia?
Stem 1 of 5
A patient in ICU with complications of liver cirrhosis suddenly undergoes massive haematemesis. Endoscopic banding and rapid resuscitation is commenced.Which is not a key sign of liver cirrhosis?
Propensity to bruise significantly
Day-night somnolence inversion
Stem 2 of 5What is the most common cause of haematemesis in the UK today?
Stem 3 of 5Using the presentation above, which vessel(s) is/are more likely to have ruptured?
Inferior mesenteric artery
Oesophageal venous plexus
Right gastric vein
Stem 4 of 5The patient quickly becomes tachycardic, has a significant decrease in consciousness and is cold to the touch. His JVP is not raised. What best matches this outcome?
Stem 5 of 5For the previous few months, the patient has noted a tremor and has been told by family that his behaviour has markedly changed. Which of the following would most likely account for this pathophysiology?
Deposition of copper about the primary somatosensory cortex
Hypertrophy of hepatocyte tissue
Accumulation of ammonia in the primary motor cortex
Occlusion of the hepatic portal vein leading to portal hypertension