Review, and challenge, are an important part of learning. This quiz is part of a set that will span the abdominal physiology and anatomy to challenge your synoptic linking ability. Good luck! 

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Gastrointestinal Physiology Review MCQ - Part 4

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Question 1
When the mucosa of the gastric lining is irritated, which mediator is more likely released to upregulate mucin production?
A
Prostaglandin
B
Adrenaline
C
Histamine
D
Gastrin
Question 1 Explanation: 
Mucin is a glycoprotein secreted by some, but not all, salivary glands.
Question 2
Which of the following is the best definition as to why their is an "alkaline tide" after a protein-rich meal?
A
Apical parietal cell pumps H+ out of the cell
B
Apical parietal cell pumps HCO3- out of the cell
C
Basolateral parietal cell pumps Cl- into the cell
D
Basolateral parietal cell pumps HCO3- out of the cell
Question 3
How does the cephalic phase of digestion trigger the exocytosis of granules within G cells?
A
ACh-mediated
B
Histamine-mediated
C
Noradrenaline-mediated
D
Prostaglandin-mediated
Question 3 Explanation: 
The cephalic phase usually refers to proximal swallowing and indeed the steps before even eating - so the very anticipation of eating (vision, olfaction, salivation) triggers the kicking off of the secretion of digestive enzymes throughout the tract in anticipation. This increases the efficiency of digestion once the food is ingested shortly thereafter.
Question 4
Which of the following cells does gastrin not act upon?
A
The cell secreting histamine
B
The cell secreting H+
C
The cell secreting pepsinogen as a zymogen
D
The cell secreting mucous
Question 5
A patient is taking a first-generation anti-histamine as a sedative.   What effect will this have on the functionality of mast cells?
A
They will increase their influence on parietal cells
B
They will trigger degranulation of their lysosomes
C
They will proliferate on a large scale
D
They will cease to bind H2 receptors on the parietal cell
Question 6
Which of the following has the largest contribution to activity of the proton-pump within the gastric phase of digestion?
A
Mechanoreceptor activation
B
Histamine
C
Gastrin
D
ACh
Question 7
Which of the above do not trigger the activation of G cells?
A
Polypeptide
B
Peptide
C
Amino acid (free)
D
ACh
Question 7 Explanation: 
Whole proteins do not upregulate, they must first be partially digested to smaller peptides or free amino acids.
Question 8

Stem 1 of 4

What follows is the summary of a doctor's notes on a patient's history of presenting complaint:

Where is the lesion?      
A
Oesophagus
B
Gastric body
C
Gastric pylorus
D
Duodenal bulb
Question 9

Stem 2 of 4

What is the most likely cause of his chest pain?
A
Angina
B
IHD
C
Pericarditis
D
Pleuritis
E
Peptic ulcer
Question 10

Stem 3 of 4

Given the answer to the previous stem, what emergent sign may the patient present with?
A
Haematemesis
B
Haemoptysis
C
Haematuria
D
Proteinuria
Question 10 Explanation: 
50% of all haematemesis can be explained by a peptic ulcer rupture. Of these patients, 10% are fatal.
Question 11

Stem 4 of 4

Which of the following is not a root value that is sending referred pain in this instance?
A
T5
B
T8
C
T7
D
T10
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