Below is a quiz on the very basics of heart physiology. Best of luck! 

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The Heart as an Electrical Pump

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Question 1
The function of an intercalated disc ...
A
Is to store myofibrils
B
Is the anchor point of the Z line
C
Permits rapid propagation of ions between cells
D
Is a unit of the sarcomere
Question 2
A sarcomere lies between
A
The attachment points of myosin
B
The attachment points of actin
C
The thick filament
D
The thin filament
Question 3
A patient has a positive deflection in the septal electrodes of the 12-lead ECG.  Which of the following modified cells had a depolarised membrane?
A
SA nodal cells
B
Interatrial cells
C
AV nodal cells
D
Subendocardial interventricular cells
Question 4
The second phase of the cardiac action potential is best defined as
A
The point at which voltage gated sodium channels open
B
The point at which voltage gated sodium channels close
C
The point at which voltage gated potassium channels open slowly
D
The point at which voltage gated potassium and calcium channels are patent
Question 5
Of the relative refractory period
A
Slow Ca++ channels are occluded
B
K+ channels are patent
C
It comes before the absolute refractory peroid
D
This is a composite of depolarisation
Question 6
Tetany of cardiomyocytes is prevented by
A
Longevity of the refractory period
B
Speed of depolarisation
C
Plateau phase of repolaristaion
D
Increased volume of intracellular mitochondria
Question 7
Which of the following statements is untrue in relation to calcium-induced calcium release (CICR)?
A
Dihydropyridine channel lies on the T tubular sarcolemma
B
The sarcoplasmic reticulum contains Ryanodine receptors
C
Intracellular calcium cations bind tropomyosin
D
The action potential propagates along the T tubule
Question 8
Post-mortem chemical changes in a corpse is due to loss of ATPase functionality from which peptide?
A
Actin
B
Tropomyosin
C
Myosin
D
SERCA
Question 9
The dicrotic wave correlates to which auscultated sound?
A
S1
B
S2
C
S3
D
S4
Question 9 Explanation: 
The dicrotic notch is heard in iso-volumetric ventricular relaxation as the aortic (semilunar) valve snaps shut and causes turbulence of back flow of blood about its cusps. This is the second heart sound (S2)
Question 10
Intraventricular pressure between the R-S interval of the ECG
A
Increases substantially
B
Decreases substantially
C
Increases partially
D
Decreases partially
Question 10 Explanation: 
The R-S interval of the QRS complex correlates to the period of isovolumetric contracture. Under Boyles' law (P/V), as contracture occurs and ventricular space decreases, the pressure will exponentially increase - the "iso" volumetric state is referring to the fact that there is no change in volume of the blood, not of space of the ventricle.
Question 11
The compensation of a calcified aortic valve is
A
Nothing
B
Right ventricular hypertrophy
C
Right ventricular dilatation
D
Left ventricular hypertrophy
Question 12

Stem 1 of 3

A patient presents short of breath, coughing frothy pink-hewed sputum and complains of orthopnea. His medical history is notable for three instances of MI, cardiogenic shock and HFpEF diagnosed 2 years previously.
On auscultation a click is noted after the SL valves close. What is this termed?
A
S1
B
S2
C
S3
D
S4
Question 13

Stem 2 of 3

What does this sound denote?
A
Stasis of vessels
B
Dilated cardiomyopathy
C
Hypertrophy of the ventricular myocardium
D
Secondary to another MI
Question 14

Stem 3 of 3

Closure of the semilunar valves occurs ordinarily in...
A
Atrial systole
B
Ventricular systole
C
Only atrial diastole
D
Atrioventricular diastole
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