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Cellular Adaptation and Cellular Damage

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Question 1
Which is not a recognised capacity of cells?
A
Labile
B
Formed
C
Stable
D
Permanent
Question 2
Mature neurons are said to be ...
A
Labile
B
Formed
C
Stable
D
Permanent
Question 2 Explanation: 
Adult neurons are permanently fixed. There are, of course, exceptions, but the bulk - and certainly the preponderance of clinically relevant neurons - are considered non-convertible.
Question 3
Which cell type cannot undergo hyperplasia?
A
Lactotrophic cells
B
Hepatocytes
C
Endometrial
D
Pseudounipolar neuron
Question 3 Explanation: 
Neurons cannot undergo hyperplasia.
Question 4
Which are true of hypertrophic cells?
A
Increase in cell size
B
Occurs in permanent cells only
C
No new structural synthesis
D
No increase in cytosolic volume
Question 5
Increased cell size to compensate a left ventricular outflow stenosis is an example of ...
A
Physiologic hyperplasia
B
Pathologic hyperplasia
C
Physiologic hypertrophy
D
Pathological hypertrophy
Question 5 Explanation: 
An example of this patient population would be one with an aortic valvular defect. Revise the anatomy of the outflow of the heart for further information as to the reason for this compensation.
Question 6
Which of the following may cause a sarcopenic vastus medialis?
A
Increased workload
B
Denervation
C
Increased perfusion
D
Endocrine hyperstimulation response
Question 6 Explanation: 
Denervation is a commonly recognised cause of muscular atrophy. In this specific instance, it is thigh muscle atrophy second to loss of innervation associated with age (aka sacropenic denervation). You will encounter this specific muscle in locomotor (MSK) anatomy.
Question 7

STEM 1 OF 3 -

The distal oesophageal cellular transition in a person with long-standing high fat diet and cigarette use is found on biopsy.
What is this cellular state best described as?
A
Metaplastic
B
Dysplastic
C
Neoplastic
D
Hyperplastic
Question 8

STEM 2 OF 3 -

Which is a more likely symptom?
A
Pain worse with cold drinks
B
Pain worse on standing
C
Pain between inferior angle of scapulae
D
Pain localised, sharp
Question 9

STEM 3 OF 3 -

The cells are now in a premalignant condition, but bound to neuroendocrine regulation.
What state is this cell population best described as entering?
A
Metaplasia
B
Dysplasia
C
Neoplasia
D
Hyperplasia
Question 10
A cell is proliferating even as pro-growth neuroendocrine signals are fully removed.
Which state best describes the above?
A
Metaplasia
B
Dysplasia
C
Neoplasia
D
Hyperplasia
Question 11
A patient is in short term respiratory alkalosis due to a mountain climb.  Which best explains his state?
A
Oxygen-tension related hypoxia
B
Haemoglobin related anaemia
C
Ischaemic embolus
D
Ischaemic cardiac failure
Question 12
Which of the following is not a major method of cell injury?
A
Osmotic environmental damage
B
Enzymatic disruption
C
Biochemical reactions
D
Integrity of the cellular membrane
Question 13
Which cell would suffer physiological decline first from an infarct?
A
Skeletal muscle
B
Beta islets
C
Enterocytes
D
Myocardial
Question 14
Efflux of intracellular calcium store can cause
A
DNA synthesis
B
Formation of cellular membranes
C
Decrease of ATPase activity
D
Increase of respiration rate
Question 15
Antioxidants are administred, eg ascorbic acid, to prevent damage from ROS via which best fitting mechanism?
A
Remove an outer electron
B
Generation of further free radicals
C
Reaction of inorganic with organic compounds
D
Donation of electron to ROS
Question 15 Explanation: 
ROS: reactive oxygen species are profoundly damaging to cells.
Question 16
A patient has sufficient UVB exposure to trigger generation of ROS.  Which of the following is increasing in the epidermis?
A
Deiodination of the membrane lipid
B
Autocatalytic chain reactions
C
Protein tertiary structure proliferation
D
DNA synthesis of mitochondria in the short term
Question 16 Explanation: 
Ultraviolet type B exposure is commonly seen from sunlight.
Question 17
Coagulative necrosis is defined as
A
Pathologic
B
Physiologic
C
Internally controlled
D
Nuclear dissolution
Question 18
Apoptosis is defined as
A
Enzymatical cell digestion
B
Cellular extravasation
C
Only physiologic
D
Nuclear dissolution
Question 19
T/F - coagulative necrosis utilises apoptotic enzymatic digestion
A
True
B
False
Question 20
A CVA causes necrosis to the cortical grey matter. What is this type of necrosis classically defined as?
A
Coagulative
B
Caseous
C
Liquefaction
D
Gangrenous
Question 20 Explanation: 
CVA: cerebrovascular accident ; Grey matter: unmyelinated nervous tissue.
Question 21
A patient has insidious fever onset, haemoptysis and is administered rifampicin and isoniazid for a number of months. Were a biopsy of her diseased lung to be taken, what necrotising pattern would be realised by the pathologist?
A
Coagulative
B
Caseous
C
Liquefactive
D
Gangrenous
Question 21 Explanation: 
The stem suggests the patient has tuberculosis. There is a common treatment algorithm and classically a caseous presentation of necrosis found in lung parenchyma.
Question 22
A 34YOF, currently breastfeeding her twins, presents with localised tenderness, redness and swelling of the periareolar region of the left breast.  A necrosis has occurred. Which type of necrosis is more likely?
A
Caseous
B
Fibrinous
C
Gangrenous
D
Lipid
Question 23
A patient presents with nonreducible mass of the scrotum revealed to be a varicocele.  What form of infarct is the ipsilateral testicle at risk of?
A
Red
B
White
C
Ischaemic
D
Proliferative
Question 24
In which of the following instances would pathological apoptosis be prudent?
A
ER stress
B
Embryogenesis
C
Proliferative potential loss of stem cell population
D
Potentially harmful lymphocytic elimination
Question 24 Explanation: 
In states of DNA, organelle damage, intracellular invasion (Eg viral) or pathological atrophy second to infarct/duct occlusion, pathological apoptosis is initiated.
Question 25
Which of the following are best matched to the process of apoptosis?
A
Enlarged cell size
B
Frequent adjacent cellular inflammation
C
Intact cellular contents
D
Disrupted cellular membrane
Question 26
Which of the following are best matched to the process of necrosis?
A
Cell shrinkage
B
Nuclear condensation (pyknosis)
C
Altered structure of lipid membrane, but integrity persists
D
No adjacent inflammation
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