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Cellular Adaptation and Cellular Damage
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Which is not a recognised capacity of cells?
Mature neurons are said to be ...
Question 2 Explanation:
Adult neurons are permanently fixed. There are, of course, exceptions, but the bulk - and certainly the preponderance of clinically relevant neurons - are considered non-convertible.
Which cell type cannot undergo hyperplasia?
Question 3 Explanation:
Neurons cannot undergo hyperplasia.
Which are true of hypertrophic cells?
Increase in cell size
Occurs in permanent cells only
No new structural synthesis
No increase in cytosolic volume
Increased cell size to compensate a left ventricular outflow stenosis is an example of ...
Question 5 Explanation:
An example of this patient population would be one with an aortic valvular defect. Revise the anatomy of the outflow of the heart for further information as to the reason for this compensation.
Which of the following may cause a sarcopenic vastus medialis?
Endocrine hyperstimulation response
Question 6 Explanation:
Denervation is a commonly recognised cause of muscular atrophy. In this specific instance, it is thigh muscle atrophy second to loss of innervation associated with age (aka sacropenic denervation). You will encounter this specific muscle in locomotor (MSK) anatomy.
STEM 1 OF 3 -The distal oesophageal cellular transition in a person with long-standing high fat diet and cigarette use is found on biopsy.
What is this cellular state best described as?
STEM 2 OF 3 -Which is a more likely symptom?
Pain worse with cold drinks
Pain worse on standing
Pain between inferior angle of scapulae
Pain localised, sharp
STEM 3 OF 3 -The cells are now in a premalignant condition, but bound to neuroendocrine regulation.
What state is this cell population best described as entering?
A cell is proliferating even as pro-growth neuroendocrine signals are fully removed.
Which state best describes the above?
Which state best describes the above?
A patient is in short term respiratory alkalosis due to a mountain climb. Which best explains his state?
Oxygen-tension related hypoxia
Haemoglobin related anaemia
Ischaemic cardiac failure
Which of the following is not a major method of cell injury?
Osmotic environmental damage
Integrity of the cellular membrane
Which cell would suffer physiological decline first from an infarct?
Efflux of intracellular calcium store can cause
Formation of cellular membranes
Decrease of ATPase activity
Increase of respiration rate
Antioxidants are administred, eg ascorbic acid, to prevent damage from ROS via which best fitting mechanism?
Remove an outer electron
Generation of further free radicals
Reaction of inorganic with organic compounds
Donation of electron to ROS
Question 15 Explanation:
ROS: reactive oxygen species are profoundly damaging to cells.
A patient has sufficient UVB exposure to trigger generation of ROS. Which of the following is increasing in the epidermis?
Deiodination of the membrane lipid
Autocatalytic chain reactions
Protein tertiary structure proliferation
DNA synthesis of mitochondria in the short term
Question 16 Explanation:
Ultraviolet type B exposure is commonly seen from sunlight.
Coagulative necrosis is defined as
Apoptosis is defined as
Enzymatical cell digestion
T/F - coagulative necrosis utilises apoptotic enzymatic digestion
A CVA causes necrosis to the cortical grey matter. What is this type of necrosis classically defined as?
Question 20 Explanation:
CVA: cerebrovascular accident ; Grey matter: unmyelinated nervous tissue.
A patient has insidious fever onset, haemoptysis and is administered rifampicin and isoniazid for a number of months. Were a biopsy of her diseased lung to be taken, what necrotising pattern would be realised by the pathologist?
Question 21 Explanation:
The stem suggests the patient has tuberculosis. There is a common treatment algorithm and classically a caseous presentation of necrosis found in lung parenchyma.
A 34YOF, currently breastfeeding her twins, presents with localised tenderness, redness and swelling of the periareolar region of the left breast. A necrosis has occurred. Which type of necrosis is more likely?
A patient presents with nonreducible mass of the scrotum revealed to be a varicocele. What form of infarct is the ipsilateral testicle at risk of?
In which of the following instances would pathological apoptosis be prudent?
Proliferative potential loss of stem cell population
Potentially harmful lymphocytic elimination
Question 24 Explanation:
In states of DNA, organelle damage, intracellular invasion (Eg viral) or pathological atrophy second to infarct/duct occlusion, pathological apoptosis is initiated.
Which of the following are best matched to the process of apoptosis?
Enlarged cell size
Frequent adjacent cellular inflammation
Intact cellular contents
Disrupted cellular membrane
Which of the following are best matched to the process of necrosis?
Nuclear condensation (pyknosis)
Altered structure of lipid membrane, but integrity persists
No adjacent inflammation
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There are 26 questions to complete.