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Physiology of the Small Intestine MCQ

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Question 1
The substance protecting the brush border of the small intestine is secreted by?
A
Chief cells
B
Parietal cells
C
Brunner’s glands
D
Cephalic glands
Question 2
Which of the following describe a messenger of the small intestine?
A
Activation of the MMC
B
Direct activation of localised bowel autonomic plexuses
C
Direct activation of enteric nervous system plexuses
D
All of the above
Question 2 Explanation: 
The answer is all of the above. We are referring to motilin, secreted by the small intestine and triggering the migrating motor complex via regulation of ANS and ENS plexuses
Question 3
The major pancreatic duct ...
A
Is comprised of acid-secreting epithelium
B
Traverses the body of the pancreas and empties into Vater’s ampulla
C
Is upregulated by CCK only
D
Is downregulated in its secretions through cholinergic transmission
Question 4
Which describes an arterial acidosis of the peri-ductular pancreatic vessels?
A
Acute pancreatitis
B
Gallstones pancreatitis
C
A normal process of secondary active transport of H+ from the lumen
D
A normal process of facilitated diffusion of H+ from the lumen
Question 5
A highly proteinaceous diet is partly digested to smaller macromolecules by which luminal membrane enzyme?
A
Chymotrypsin
B
Trypsin
C
Carboxypeptidase
D
Aminopeptidase
Question 6
In which of the following stages are fats held in micelles at the brush border?
A
During combination with phospholipids and bile salts
B
Emulsification
C
Secretion of bile salt
D
During digestion by pancreatic lipase
Question 7
A lymphatic vessel is sampled for content of triacylglycerol. In which superstructure is this stored for lymphatic travel?
A
Micelle
B
Vesicle
C
Chylomicron
D
Bulla
Question 8
A GLUT5 deficiency would render which carbohydrate deficient in the serum?
A
Glucose
B
Galactose
C
Fructose
D
Sucrose
Question 9
By which form of movement does fructose enter the enterocyte?
A
Facilitated diffusion
B
Primary active transport
C
Secondary active transport
D
Passive diffusion
Question 10
Which of the following groupings are not absorbed via receptor-mediated endocytosis?
A
Haem
B
Myoglobin
C
Cytochromes
D
Fe3+
Question 10 Explanation: 
Free iron, in the Fe3+ form, is non absorbable and must be reduced by duodenal cytochrome B ferric reductase at the brush border before DMT1 allows its crossing into the enterocyte.
Question 11
Which of the following causes anaemia from poorly controlled rheumatoid arthritis?
A
Transferrin levels
B
Albumin levels
C
Ferritin levels
D
Ferroportin levels
Question 11 Explanation: 
Hepcidin is an acute phase protein (APP) released from hepatocytes in response to acute inflammation - and to further trigger the response. As part of its functionality, it downregulates the basolateral enterocyte transporter termed FP1 or ferroportin-1. Thus dietary absorbed iron cannot pass to the serum, and the patient results in hypochromic, microcytic anaemia of chronic disease.
Question 12
A patient with acute pancreatitis will most likely present with ...
A
Steattorhoea
B
Flatus
C
Anaemia
D
Both steatorrhea and flatus
Question 12 Explanation: 
An inability to secrete pancreatic lipase leaves a proportion of luminal bolus fat as unabsorbed. Thus is defecated, forming “floating, pale” stools termed steatorrhoea.
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