Reviewed by Daniel Mercer on 14th October 2019
Introduction to immunology
IgA causes HDFN, IgD detects ABO-related antigens
IgE causes HDFN, IgM detects ABO-related antigens
IgD causes HDFN, IgE detects ABO-related antigens
IgG causes HDFN, IgM detects ABO-related antigens
IgA causes HDFN, IgE detects ABO-related antigens
Neutrophils and macrophages and monocytes
Macrophages and monocytes
B cells and neutrophils
Lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils
Lymphocytes and neutrophils
Neutrophils are only found in blood, macrophages are only found in tissue
Close - but neutrophils can also be recruited into tissue
Neutrophils are produced in bone marrow, macrophages are produced in lymph nodes
Neutrophils have multilobed nuclei, macrophages have large, rounder nuclei
Neutrophils phagocytose opsonised bacteria, macrophages do not
Neutrophils secrete cytokines, macrophages do not
Both neutrophils and monocytes (the precursor to macrophages) originate in the bone marrow. Both also secrete cytokines and have the ability to phagocytose opsonised bacteria - opsonisation in the process by which molecules including antibodies and complement bind to foreign cells to increase their phagocytosis.
Red blood cells
They are activated by T helper cells
They produce antibodies
They have receptors for IL-4
Proliferate on activation producing identical copies of themselves
They phagocytose antigens bound to cell surface antibodies
Now you’ve given the MCQs a go, try out these SAQs as well!
Which five molecules make up the membrane attack complex in the complement cascade?
What are the two main structural elements to an immunoglobulin? Which one depending on the immunoglobulin type?
Describe three differences between the primary and secondary adaptive immune responses.
The secondary immune response is faster and bigger, involves IgG, and the antibodies are more specific to the antigen.
What is opsonisation?
Describe four differences between the innate and adaptive immune response.
Immediate vs, delayed response
Only some threats recognised vs. all threats able to be recognised
No selection of antibodies vs. clonal selection of antibodies
No memory vs. immunological memory (e.g. via B cells)
No antigen presentation vs. antigen presentation
Give four examples of barrier immunity
Barrier immunity can be split into physical and biochemical components and includes:
- Respiratory cilia
- Commensal organisms
- Gut acid
- Enzymes (e.g. lysozyme in tears)