Review, and challenge, are an important part of learning. This quiz is part of a set that will span endocrine physiology to challenge your synoptic linking ability. Good luck! 

Endocrine Review Part II

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Question 1
Glucose is utilised in which of the following tissue types?
A
Endothelial cells
B
Skeletal myocytes
C
Intercalated discs
D
Stratum lucidum
Question 1 Explanation: 
Skeelta muscle, liver and adipocytes remain the major utilisers of glucose and fatty acid post-meal.
Question 2
Fuel storage molecules include which of the following?
A
Glycogen
B
Glucose
C
Protein
D
Triglycerides
Question 2 Explanation: 
Glucose is converted for storage to the above three types mostly.
Question 3

Stem 1 of 4

A period of time has elapsed since the patient, who is unable to stand post-fall, has been able to eat. They are dehydrated and their stores of glycogen have been nearly eliminated.
Where was most of that aforesaid store?
A
Skeletal muscle
B
Adipocytes
C
Hepatocytes
D
Cholangiocytes
E
Pancreas
Question 4

Stem 2 of 4

Which storage molecule substrate will increase in its catabolism at this stage?
A
Glycogen
B
Glucose
C
Lipid
D
Adipocyte
E
Polypeptide
Question 4 Explanation: 
As time progresses (>10hr), protein stores are utilised. Hence the breakdown of muscle mass during starvation.
Question 5

Stem 3 of 4

The main regulator of immediately post-prandial blood glucose concentration (BGC) is secreted by
A
Alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans
B
Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
C
Gamma cells of the islets of Langerhans
D
Delta cells of the islets of Langerhans
E
Epsilon cells of the islets of Langerhans
Question 5 Explanation: 
Insulin, of beta cells, is the prime mover immediately post-prandial.
Question 6

Stem 4 of 4

The patient has undergone profound catabolic state resulting in rhabdomyolysis.  Which of the following hormones have not contributed to this state?
A
Secretions of the zona reticularis
B
Secretions of chromaffin cells
C
Secretions of delta islet cells
D
The major catecholamine regulator of the SNS
Question 6 Explanation: 
Delta cell secretions (somatostatin) are not primarily responsible for catabolism. But ZR cells secrete cortisol, chromaffin cells secrete adrenaline and the major SNS neurotransmitter is noradrenaline. These latter three are powerful drivers of catabolism.
Question 7
Appetite is centrally mediated, in the main, by which structure?
A
The secondary somatosensory cortex
B
The anterior cingulate gyrus and limbic connections including the anterior thalamic nucleus
C
The islets of Langerhans
D
The structure of nuclei immediately rostro-inferior to the thalamus
E
Caudal to the midbrain
Question 7 Explanation: 
The hypothalamus is described in the correct answer, and the site of appetite regulation.
Question 8
In the aftermath of eating a fully-balanced meal, which of the following hormones are downregulated?
A
GDIP
B
GLP
C
CCK
D
Leptin
E
Ghrelin
Question 8 Explanation: 
Ghrelin is released from the stomach, to signal hunger, when it has not received adequate food stimuli for a period of time.
Question 9
Which of the following statements below best matches a partial definition of "orexigenic"?
A
Inhibition of the arcuate nucleus
B
Inhibition of the ventromedial nucleus
C
Appetite suppression
D
Satiety sensation
E
Ghrelin upregulation
Question 9 Explanation: 
Orexigenic (cf anorexigenic) refers to stimulating appetite.
Question 10
For BGC increases to be sensed by beta islet cells, which transporter is utilised?
A
GLUT1
B
GLUT2
C
GLUT3
D
SGLT1
E
GLUT4
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