Review, and challenge, are an important part of learning. This quiz is part of a set that will span endocrine physiology to challenge your synoptic linking ability. Good luck!
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Endocrine Review Part II
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Glucose is utilised in which of the following tissue types?
Question 1 Explanation:
Skeelta muscle, liver and adipocytes remain the major utilisers of glucose and fatty acid post-meal.
Fuel storage molecules include which of the following?
Question 2 Explanation:
Glucose is converted for storage to the above three types mostly.
Stem 1 of 4
A period of time has elapsed since the patient, who is unable to stand post-fall, has been able to eat. They are dehydrated and their stores of glycogen have been nearly eliminated.Where was most of that aforesaid store?
Stem 2 of 4Which storage molecule substrate will increase in its catabolism at this stage?
Question 4 Explanation:
As time progresses (>10hr), protein stores are utilised. Hence the breakdown of muscle mass during starvation.
Stem 3 of 4The main regulator of immediately post-prandial blood glucose concentration (BGC) is secreted by
Alpha cells of the islet of Langerhans
Beta cells of the islets of Langerhans
Gamma cells of the islets of Langerhans
Delta cells of the islets of Langerhans
Epsilon cells of the islets of Langerhans
Question 5 Explanation:
Insulin, of beta cells, is the prime mover immediately post-prandial.
Stem 4 of 4The patient has undergone profound catabolic state resulting in rhabdomyolysis. Which of the following hormones have not contributed to this state?
Secretions of the zona reticularis
Secretions of chromaffin cells
Secretions of delta islet cells
The major catecholamine regulator of the SNS
Question 6 Explanation:
Delta cell secretions (somatostatin) are not primarily responsible for catabolism. But ZR cells secrete cortisol, chromaffin cells secrete adrenaline and the major SNS neurotransmitter is noradrenaline. These latter three are powerful drivers of catabolism.
Appetite is centrally mediated, in the main, by which structure?
The secondary somatosensory cortex
The anterior cingulate gyrus and limbic connections including the anterior thalamic nucleus
The islets of Langerhans
The structure of nuclei immediately rostro-inferior to the thalamus
Caudal to the midbrain
Question 7 Explanation:
The hypothalamus is described in the correct answer, and the site of appetite regulation.
In the aftermath of eating a fully-balanced meal, which of the following hormones are downregulated?
Question 8 Explanation:
Ghrelin is released from the stomach, to signal hunger, when it has not received adequate food stimuli for a period of time.
Which of the following statements below best matches a partial definition of "orexigenic"?
Inhibition of the arcuate nucleus
Inhibition of the ventromedial nucleus
Question 9 Explanation:
Orexigenic (cf anorexigenic) refers to stimulating appetite.
For BGC increases to be sensed by beta islet cells, which transporter is utilised?
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There are 10 questions to complete.