Review, and challenge, are an important part of learning. This quiz is part of a set that will span endocrine physiology to challenge your synoptic linking ability. Good luck! 

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Endocrine Review Part I

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Question 1
All pituitary hormones are
A
Peptides
B
Polypeptides
C
Lipid-based
D
Both peptide and polypeptide
Question 2
Which of the following is not a major constituent of the pituitary gland?
A
Infundibular stalk
B
Anterior lobe
C
Neurohypophysis
D
Intermediate lobe
Question 3
Parvocellular hypothalamic nuclei function can be best summarised as
A
Site of oxytocin generation
B
Site of regulation of the neurohypophysis
C
Site of regulation of the adenohypophysis
D
The site of internal carotid curvature
Question 4
The magnocellular hypothalamic nucleus immediately caudal to the supachiasmatic nucleus has which of the following functions?
A
The regulation of neurodevelopment in the fetus and basal metabolic rate universally
B
The control of satiety and drive for feeding/drinking
C
The regulation of the sleep wake cycle via the cervicalhypothalamic chain network
D
Contraction of the lactiferous duct's circumferential myoepithelium during let-down reflex
Question 5
The paraventricular nucleus communicates with its hypophysis target inferiorly via the
A
Superior alveolar artery
B
Superior hypophyseal artery
C
Superior hypophyseal vein
D
Inferior hypophyseal artery
E
Inferior hypophyseal vein
Question 6
Which of the following is an example of a pure neuroendocrine reflex?
A
Insertion of AQP2 into the distal convoluted tubule
B
Development of the epiphyseal growth plate
C
Up-regulation of the functionality of follicular thyroid cells
D
Luteinizing hormone surge to trigger ovulation
Question 6 Explanation: 
Only the posterior pituitary gland, with its magnocellular axonal projections from the hypothalamus, receives PURELY neural regulation from higher centres. Thus, classically speaking, only OXY or ADH can be consider to be neuroendocrine reflexes.
Question 7
Which of the following hormones would the timescale of action be expected to be shortest?
A
CRH
B
ACTH
C
TRH
D
LH
E
OXY
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer has to be OXY. The neuroendocrine responses (aka those from the posterior pituitary gland) are said to be active for minutes, to hours maximally. It is usually excepted that anterior pituitary hormones have days of action.
Question 8
Which below synthesise a factor regulating conversion of a primary oocyte to a Graafian follicle?
A
Supraoptic
B
Suprachiasmatic
C
Ventromedial
D
Periventricular
E
Paraventricular
Question 8 Explanation: 
GnRH is released from the ventromedial and prep-tic nuclei of the hypothalamus to trigger LH, FSH release from the anterior pituitary gland.
Question 9
A fatty embolism is shown on CT arteriography to have occluded the superior hypophyseal artery. Which of the following functions are at risk of being reduced in this patient population?
A
The regulation of the pyloric sphincter
B
The regulation of the nodal rate of the atrial myocardium
C
DNA cape formation of the stratum basalis and granulosa
D
Osmoregulation and natriuresis
E
Bonding associated with suckling
Question 10
A patient, with unknown mental health history, is taking haloperidol at the Psychiatrist's direction. They present to you with enlarged, irritated breasts - embarrassed as they are unable to wear their usual clothing. Which of the following mechanisms best match the above case?
A
PIF is upregulated
B
DA is downregulated
C
There is a direct relationship between PIF and PRL release from the adenohypophysis
D
Three is an upregulation of the tuberoinfundibulnar pathway
Question 10 Explanation: 
PIF is prolactin-inhibitory factor ; DA is dopamine ; PRL is prolactin. These are abbreviations used as often in the literature as ADH and OXY, so a good knowledge of these stand the student in good stead. When DA is down regulated (as in first generation anti-psychotic use), then there is a concomitant increase in PRL. This causes galactogenesis and lactation eventually. In men, gynaecomastia can result.
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