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The musculoskeletal system is a fascinating topic. The quiz is about the bones, muscles and their associated arterial and nervous supply. Good luck!

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Musculoskeletal anatomy - Part 2

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Question 1

STEM 1 OF 3

Read the following vignette: A Tredelenburg test is performed by a therapist to assess for any hip dysfunction of a 45 year old patient. Which muscle is mostly likely affected if the test is positive?
A
Gluteus maximus
B
Gluteus medius
C
Obturator externus
D
Pectineus
E
Piriformis
Question 1 Explanation: 
A positive Tredelenburg test usually indicates weaknesses in hip abductors, namely the gluteus medius and gluteus minimus.
Question 2

STEM 2 of 3

Injury to which nerve may result in a positive Tredelenburg test?
A
Inferior gluteal nerve
B
Obturator nerve
C
Pudendal nerve
D
Sciatic nerve
E
Superior gluteal nerve
Question 2 Explanation: 
Gluteus medius and gluteus minimus are supplied by superior gluteal nerve.
Question 3

STEM 3 OF 3

The patient is confirmed to have a positive Tredelenburg test. What is not true about a positive Tredelenburg test?
A
Pelvic drop is noted on the contralateral side during a one leg stand on the affected side
B
Lateral trunk flexion to the affected side during stance phase of gait
C
Lateral trunk flexion away from the affected side during swing phase of gait
D
The pelvis tilts downwards on the non-weight bearing side
E
The pelvis tilts upwards on the non-weight bearing side
Question 3 Explanation: 
Pelvis tilts downwards on the non-weight bearing side and as a compensatory mechanism the trunk is tilted away from the affected side.
Question 4
Following an injury to the leg, a patient is unable to dorsiflex their foot. Which nerve is most likely to be damaged?
A
Deep branch of the common fibular nerve
B
Superficial branch of the common fibular nerve
C
Saphenous nerve
D
Sural nerve
E
Tibial nerve
Question 4 Explanation: 
Deep branch of the common fibular nerve supplies muscles of the anterior compartment of calf and their main function is dorsiflexion of the foot.
Question 5
Regarding the great saphenous vein, which of the following is not true:
A
It drains into the femoral vein in the region of the femoral triangle
B
It passes anterior to the medial malleolus
C
It originates from the dorsal venous arch of the foot
D
It passes anterior to the lateral malleolus
E
It runs over the knee joint posterior to the medial epicondyle of the femur
Question 6
Which of the nerve of the lumbar plexus does not emerge posterior to the psoas major muscle?
A
Femoral nerve
B
Genitofemoral nerve
C
Iliohypogastric nerve
D
Ilioinguinal nerve
E
Lateral cutaneous nerve of thigh
Question 6 Explanation: 
The genitofemoral nerve pierces through the psoas major muscle and descends anterior to the muscle.
Question 7
Eversion of foot is performed by which pair of muscles?
A
Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis
B
Fibularis longus and tibialis anterior
C
Fibularis longus and tibialis posterior
D
Tibialis anterior and tibialis posterior
E
Fibularis longus and plantaris
Question 7 Explanation: 
Fibularis longus and fibularis brevis are muscles of the lateral compartment of the thigh and contractions of them cause eversion of the foot.
Question 8
Which of the following is NOT TRUE regarding the popliteal fossa?
A
The semimembranosus muscle is one of its borders
B
The small saphenous vein joins the popliteal vein within its area
C
The popliteal vein runs deep to the popliteal artery
D
The common fibular nerve runs on the lateral margin of the fossa
E
The floor of the fossa is formed by the posterior surface of femur
Question 8 Explanation: 
The popliteal vein runs superficial to the popliteal artery
Question 9
Which of the following structures does not pass through the greater sciatic foramen below the piriformis muscle
A
The sciatic nerve
B
The superior gluteal nerve and vessels
C
The posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
D
The inferior gluteal nerve and vessels
E
Nerve to obturator internus
Question 9 Explanation: 
Superior gluteal vessels and nerve are the only structures that pass through the greater sciatic foramen above the piriformis muscle
Question 10
After a blow to the lateral side of the leg, a 60 year old patient is observed to experience symptoms of common fibular neuropathy. Which of the following is not true?
A
Numbness of the lateral calf
B
Impaired dorsiflexion of the foot
C
Slapping gait
D
Loss of eversion of foot
E
Loss of inversion of foot
Question 10 Explanation: 
Common fibular neuropathy affects both superficial and deep fibular nerve. Superficial fibular nerve provides cutaneous sensation to anterolateral leg and dorsum of foot as well as motor innervation to the evertors. The deep fibular nerve supplies muscles that perform dorsiflexion of the foot
Question 11
The dorsalis pedis artery is a continuation of:
A
Anterior tibial artery
B
Femoral artery
C
Fibular artery
D
Popliteal artery
E
Posterior tibial artery
Question 12
Regarding the movements at the knee joint:
A
popliteus ‘unlocks’ the extended knee by producing medial rotation of the femur
B
there is no active rotation of the extended knee
C
passive extension of the knee does not result in ‘locking’ of the joint
D
the posterior cruciate ligament prevents backward displacement of the femur on the tibial plateau
E
the major role of the menisci is in flexion/extension of the knee
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