😀 EASY

The 13 questions of this MCQ focus on the basic endocrinology of the mentrual cycle as well as a couple of practical facts all covered in the WMS block 5 lectures. Good luck!

Reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak

Menstrual Cycle

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Question 1
Where is GnRH secreted from in the brain?
A
Medulla
B
Hypothalamus
C
Anterior pituitary gland
D
Posterior pituitary gland
E
Substantia nigra
Question 2
Which hormone acts solely on the anterior pituitary gland in the HPO axis to inhibit release of FSH?
A
Oestrogen
B
Progesterone
C
Somatostatin
D
Inhibin
E
Testosterone
Question 2 Explanation: 
While oestrogen and progesterone also have inhibitory functions, they act at both the hypothalamus and pituitary gland.
Question 3
What hormone decreases as the corpus luteum degenerates during the luteal phase?
A
Oestrogen
B
FSH
C
LH
D
Progesterone
E
Inhibin
Question 4
Select all the functions of oestrogen during the follicular phase:
A
Endometrial thickening
B
Thinning of the cervical mucus
C
Thickening of the cervical mucus
D
Inhibition of FSH and LH production by the anterior pituitary gland
E
Stimulation of FSH and LH production by the anterior pituitary gland
Question 4 Explanation: 
Oestrogen inhibits FSH and LH early in the follicular phase but provides positive feedback just before ovulation, increasing the concentration of these two hormones.
Question 5
Which term best describes ‘infrequent menstrual periods’?
A
Amenorrhea
B
Metrorrhagia
C
Oligomenorrhea
D
Menorrhagia
E
Dysmenorrhea
Question 5 Explanation: 
Amenorrhea - absence of menstrual periods; Metrorrhagia - abnormal bleeding that occurs between periods; Menorrhagia - abnormally heavy or prolonged bleeding; Dysmenorrhea - painful periods/ menstrual cramps.
Question 6
Which hormone prevents the degeneration of the corpus luteum during the luteal phase?
A
LH
B
FSH
C
Progesterone
D
Oestrogen
E
hCG
Question 7
Which term best describes ‘pain with your menstrual periods i.e. menstrual cramps’?
A
Amenorrhea
B
Dyspareunia
C
Menorrhagia
D
Dysmenorrhea
E
Menometrorrhagia
Question 7 Explanation: 
Dyspareunia - painful sexual intercourse; menorrhagia - heavy or prolonged periods; menometrorrhagia - prolonged or excessive uterine bleeding which occurs irregularly.
Question 8
A 24yr old woman visits her GP wanting to understand when it’s safest to have sex without any contraception or the usage of condoms. The GP explains that there’s always a small risk of getting pregnant (<5%) whenever you have sex, but the risk is greater between which two days after her period starts?
A
Days 1-5
B
Days 5-15
C
Days 9-15
D
Days 10-12
E
Days 21-28
Question 9
Which hormone is used as a marker to diagnose menopause, and does it increase or decrease during menopause?
A
LH - increases
B
LH - decreases
C
FSH - decreases
D
FSH - increases
E
GnRH - decreases
Question 10
During which days are oestrogen levels at its peak?
A
Days 1-10
B
Days 10-12
C
Days 12-14
D
Days 14-16
E
Days 20-24
Question 11
Which hormone has the largest surge during the ovulatory phase?
A
FSH
B
Oestrogen
C
Progesterone
D
LH
E
Inhibin
Question 12
Which hormone allows for the development of follicles during the follicular phase?
A
LH
B
FSH
C
Oestrogen
D
Progesterone
E
Oestradiol
Question 13
Which 2 hormones are at its lowest level during the luteal phase?
A
FSH
B
hCG
C
Oestrogen
D
Progesterone
E
LH
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