Review, and challenge, are an important part of learning. This quiz is part of a set that will span the abdominal physiology and anatomy to challenge your synoptic linking ability. Good luck! 

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Gastrointestinal Physiology Review MCQ - Part 1

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Question 1
Study the image below ...

Name the arterial supply to structure 5
A
Left colic artery
B
Marginal artery
C
Superior rectal artery
D
Inferior rectal artery
Question 1 Explanation: 
The superior rectal artery, derived off of the inferior mesenteric artery, is the branch that supplies - in this instance - number 5: the sigmoid colon.
Question 2
Please refer to the previous image for this question...
A metastasis from the mucosa of "1" causes which noted sign?
A
McBurney
B
Murphy
C
Troisier
D
Virchow
Question 2 Explanation: 
A foregut metastasis can cause the sentinel lymph notes of the left supraclavicular fossa to enlarge. These nodes are termed Virchow's nodes with the sign described previously being termed "Troisier sign"
Question 3
The tonic nature of saliva at the oral cavity means
A
Water has a propensity to exit their solution
B
Water has a propensity to enter their solution
C
Water has a propensity to neither enter or exit their solution
D
The nature of saliva is too heterogenous amongst individuals to quantify so simply
Question 3 Explanation: 
Saliva is hypotonic within the oral cavity (cf the ductule systems where it remains isotonic). In short, this means a low oncotic potential for the substrate. Thus, by osmosis, water has a propensity to leave its solution.
Question 4
The muscularis propria ...
A
Contains the myenteric plexus within its space
B
Is superficial to the mucosal layer
C
Contains a thin layer of smooth muscle
D
Is circumferential and longitudinal in its fibre arrangement
Question 4 Explanation: 
The muscularis propria is the "proper" layer of muscle that is involved in peristalsis of the gut tube. Compare this to the other smooth muscle, that serves little more purpose than creating mucosal rugae, increasing surface area and the mixing properties of the spiralling luminal content.
Question 5
Background salivation, of the non-stimulated person, has maximal contribution from which gland?
A
Parotid
B
Submucosal
C
Submandibular
D
Sublingual
Question 5 Explanation: 
The submandibular gland is the gland that "keeps the trains running on time" and will, without parasympathetic input to accelerate, be the preponderance of salivation supply.
Question 6
Which ion holds the largest share of saliva when the secretomotor fibres are maximally stimulated?
A
Na+
B
K+
C
Cl-
D
HCO3-
Question 6 Explanation: 
In the resting state, the submandibular gland reigns with the parotid gland far behind in second place (in terms of contributors to salivation). This is flipped when the glands are all stimulated as the parotid takes charge. Equally, sodium concentrations increase in the stimulated gland's saliva output. This means, as a result, that the osmolarity of stimulated saliva rises.
Question 7

Stem 1 of 4

Two years after head and neck surgery a patient has difficulty in taste, xerostomia.  A laboratory examination of his saliva finds significantly increase in mucous content.
Which gland was likely ablated?
A
Parotid
B
Sublingual
C
Submandibular
D
Minor salivary glands
Question 8

Stem 2 of 4

What is the secretomotor innervation to the named gland of the previous question?
A
CNVII
B
CNVIII
C
CNIX
D
CNX
Question 9

Stem 3 of 4

Which of the following descriptions best match the secretions of the ablated glandular tissue?
A
Serous with watery saliva containing a high concentration of electrolytes and enzymes
B
Mucous, viscous saliva rich in mucins, Ab and protein
C
Mucous, viscous saliva rich in carbohydrates and Ag
D
Mixed serous and mucous secretions
Question 9 Explanation: 
Ablation refers to the surgical removal of tissue. In this case, a parotid ablation was undertaken, and this gland is innervated by the inferior salivary nucleus via cranial nerve nine - glossopharyngeal.
Question 10

Stem 4 of 4

Which salivary gland has the most contribution to salivary volume in the stimulated state?
A
Parotid
B
Sublingual
C
Submandibular
D
Von Ebner
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