A quick quiz to gauge your understanding of introductory principles underpinning endocrinology and regulation of metabolism.
Reviewed by Michael Barrett
Introduction to Endocrinology MCQs
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Which of the following best matches the definition of macula densa signalling to the glomerular arterioles?
Which of the following definitions is best suited to “endocrine” signalling?
Acting on adjacent cell types
Acting on surface receptors of the same cell
Secreting onto adjacent epithelia
Acting through blood to distant targets
Polypeptides with sole autocrine roles
Steroids with nuclear transcription regulation roles
Peptides with autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functionality
Steroids with extracellular regulation roles
Which of the organs described below is not considered a major endocrine organ?
Organ of the common site of gestation
Organ that synthesises granular cells
Organ with mechanoceptors which cause release of ANP
Organ that releases somatostatin from delta cells of its exocrine tissue
Question 4 Explanation:
In turn, the answers describe the uterus, kidney, heart and pancreas. The heart is not considered a major endocrine organ, owning to its significant role in the cardiovascular system, and relatively limited role in fluid homeostasis. When overfill is detected by the atria, stretch receptors trigger release of ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), causing osmotic diuresis and lowering fluid volume. Therefore, it only has a minor endocrine function.
Which of the following is a major molecular hormone type?
Non-modified Amino Acid
Which one of the following is a small peptide, amino acid-derived hormone?
Question 6 Explanation:
The answer is TRH. The other noted hormones are all complex, much larger polypeptides in structure.
Which is not an example of the function of a complex polypeptide?
Maturation of secondary oocyte to Graafian follicle
Significantly upregulated - “surge-like” - in response to oestrogen levels to trigger ovulation to occur
Modulates basal metabolic rate and key determinant of neurogenesis
Released from paraventricular nucleus to upregulate function of thyrotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary gland
Question 7 Explanation:
The correct answer is describing TRH, which is a small polypeptide. The other three are complex, large polypeptides.
Which lipid precursor hormone listed below is NOT a cholesterol derivative?
Question 8 Explanation:
Prostaglandins are derived from fatty acids. The other three examples above are derived from cholesterol.
Which of the following best describes the properties of the hormone deficient in Addison’s disease?
Synthesis occurs partly in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
All of the above
Question 9 Explanation:
Addison's disease is a primary endocrine dysfunction typified with a deficiency in cortisol and aldosterone levels. These aforesaid hormones are lipid-based, ergo lipophilic, hydrophobic and synthesis occurs - in part - in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER).
Protein kinases …
Are upregulated by inhibition of adenylate cyclase
Are linked to voltage gated calcium channels
Are inhibited by PLC upregulation
Are upregulated by increased intracellular cAMP
Which of the following is upregulated by reduced zona fasciculata secretions?
Question 11 Explanation:
The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones - zona glomerulosa, zona fasciculata and zona reticularis. They secrete androgens, aldosterone and cortisol (amongst others) respectively. Thus, a decline in the levels of cortisol will trigger an up regulation of corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland parenchyma to secrete ACTH to compensate and reverse this serum deficit of stress hormone.
GHIH acts on which region of the endocrine system directly?
Anterior pituitary gland
Posterior pituitary gland
Question 12 Explanation:
GHIH is secreted by the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to prevent anterior pituitary cells from releasing growth hormone - it is also known by the synonym SST or somatostatin.
Which of the following best describes a primary endocrine dysfunction?
Undersecretion of pancreatic beta cells due to overexpressed D cell (Antrum) inhibition
Undersecretion from lactotrophic cells due to anterior pituitary glandular enzymatic dysregulation
Overstimulation of corticotrophs by the paraventricular nucleus
Bitemporal hemianopsia causing pituitary adenoma
Question 13 Explanation:
A primary endocrine dysfunction is different to a secondary in that the former is an inherent issue with the glandular tissue, the latter is an issue with the stimulation/inhibition of said glandular tissue from an extrinsic source. Thus, the answer is undersecretion from lactotrophic cells due to enzymatic dysregulation as this is an issue inherent with the anterior pituitary gladular cells, not their control mechanism e.g. the hypothalamus.
An ACTH-causing adenoma in the lung would be an example of
A metastatic neoplasm
An ectopic production
A glandular dysfunction
Question 14 Explanation:
Ectopic refers to a site not usual. In this case, it is not usual for ACTH to be secreted from the lung, thus an adenoma has formed ectopically.
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