A quick quiz to gauge your understanding of introductory principles underpinning endocrinology and regulation of metabolism. 

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Introduction to Endocrinology MCQs

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Question 1
Which of the following best matches the definition of macula densa signalling to the glomerular arterioles?
A
Endocrine
B
Autocrine
C
Paracrine
D
Exocrine
Question 2
Which of the following definitions is best suited to “endocrine” signalling?
A
Acting on adjacent cell types
B
Acting on surface receptors of the same cell
C
Secreting onto adjacent epithelia
D
Acting through blood to distant targets
Question 3
Cytokines are...
A
Polypeptides with sole autocrine roles
B
Steroids with nuclear transcription regulation roles
C
Peptides with autocrine, paracrine and endocrine functionality
D
Steroids with extracellular regulation role
Question 4
Which of the organs described below are not considered “major endocrine” organs?
A
Organ of the common site of gestation
B
Organ that synthesises granular cells
C
Organ with mechanoceptors which cause release of ANP
D
Organ that releases somatostatin from delta cells of its exocrine tissue
Question 4 Explanation: 
The heart is not considered a major endocrine organ, owning to its significant role in the cardiovascular system, and relatively limited role in fluid homeostasis. When overfill is detected of the atria, stretch receptors trigger release of ANP, causing osmotic diuresis and lowering fluid volume.
Question 5
Which of the following is a major molecular hormone type?
A
Polypeptide
B
Sterol
C
Trophoblast
D
Non-modified Amino Acid
Question 6
Which small peptide, amino-acid derivative is a major molecular type of hormone?
A
TRH
B
TSH
C
GnRH
D
Insulin
Question 6 Explanation: 
The answer is TRH. The other noted hormones are all complex, much larger polypeptides in structure.
Question 7
Which is not an example of the function of a complex polypeptide?
A
Maturation of secondary oocyte to Graafian follicle
B
Significantly upregulated - “surge-like” - in response to oestrogen levels to trigger ovulation to occur
C
Modulates basal metabolic rate and key determinant of neurogenesis
D
Released from paraventricular nucleus to upregulate function of thyrotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary gland
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is describing TRH, which is a small polypeptide. The other three are complex, large polypeptides.
Question 8
Which lipid precursor hormone listed below is NOT a cholesterol derivative?
A
Cortisol
B
Sex steroid
C
Vitamin D
D
Prostaglandin
Question 8 Explanation: 
Prostaglandins are derived from fatty acids. The other three examples above are derived from cholesterol.
Question 9
Which of the following best describes the properties of the hormone deficient in Addison’s disease?
A
Lipophilic
B
Hydrophobic
C
Formed of sER synthesis
D
All of the above
Question 9 Explanation: 
Addison's disease is a primary endocrine dysfunction typified with a deficiency in cortisol and aldosterone levels. These aforesaid hormones are lipid-based, ergo lipophilic, hydrophobic and synthesis occurs - in part - in the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (sER).
Question 10
Protein kinases …
A
Are upregulated by inhibition of adenylate cyclase
B
Are linked to voltage gated calcium channels
C
Are inhibited by PLC upregulation
D
Are upregulated by increased intracellular cAMP
Question 11
Which of the following is upregulated by reduced zona fasciculata secretions?
A
Corticotrophs
B
Mammotrophs
C
Lactotrophs
D
Thyrotrophs
Question 11 Explanation: 
The adrenal cortex is divided into three zonules - reticularis, glomerulus and fasciculata. They secrete androgens, aldosterone and cortisol (amongst others) respectively. Thus, a decline in the levels of cortisol will trigger an up regulation of corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland parenchyma to secrete ACTH to compensate and reverse this serum deficit of stress hormone.
Question 12
GHIH acts on which region of the endocrine system directly?
A
Anterior pituitary gland
B
Thalamus
C
Zona glomerulosa
D
Posterior pituitary gland
Question 12 Explanation: 
GHIH is secreted by the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus to prevent anterior pituitary cells from releasing growth hormone - it is also known by the synonym SST or somatostatin.
Question 13
Which of the following best describes a primary endocrine dysfunction?
A
Undersecretion of pancreatic beta cells due to overexpressed D cell (Antrum) inhibition
B
Undersecretion from lactotrophic cells due to anterior pituitary glandular enzymatic dysregulation
C
Overstimulation of corticotrophs by the paraventricular nucleus
D
Bitemporal hemianopsia causing pituitary adenoma
Question 13 Explanation: 
A primary endocrine dysfunction is different to a secondary in that the former is an inherent issue with the glandular tissue, the latter is an issue with the stimulation/inhibition of said glandular tissue from an extrinsic source. Thus, the answer is undersecretion from lactotrophic cells due to enzymatic dysregulation as this is an issue inherent with the anterior pituitary gladular cells, not their control mechanism e.g. the hypothalamus.
Question 14
An ACTH-causing adenoma in the lung would be an example of 
A
A metastatic neoplasm
B
Hyperplasia
C
An ectopic production
D
A glandular dysfunction
Question 14 Explanation: 
Ectopic refers to a site not usual. In this case, it is not usual for ACTH to be secreted from the lung, thus an adenoma has formed ectopically.
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