This MCQ tests understanding of basic priciples relating to kidney anatomy (microanatomical structure) and function (ex. main functions of the kidney).

Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019

Intro to the Kidney MCQ

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Question 1

Outline, in sequence, the blood supply for the kidney beginning from renal artery to venous supply

A
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
B
Renal artery, interlobular artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, segmental artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta efferent arteriole
C
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta, efferent arteriole
D
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
Question 2

A decrease in blood flow to an interlobular artery could result from stenosis of which artery?

A
Arcuate artery
B
Afferent arteriole
C
Efferent arteriole
D
Vasa recta
Question 2 Explanation: 
B,C,D are all distal to the interlobular artery
Question 3

What are the three components of the glomerular filtration barrier and their filtration characteristics?

A
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), hepatocytes (filters based on size and shape), type 2 pneumocytes (filters based on size and shape)
B
Blood vessel (filters based on charge), glomerulous (filters based on size and shape), bowman’s capsule (filters based on size and shape)
C
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), basement membrane (filters based on charge), podocytes (filters based on size and shape)
D
2 layers of fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), Basement membrane (filters based on charge)
Question 4

How would the basement membrane of the glomerular filtration barrier prevent the passage of albumin?

A
By repulsion of albumin’s positive charge
B
By having fenestrations smaller than the size of albumin
C
By having fenestrations of different shape to albumin
D
By repulsion of albumin’s negative charge
Question 4 Explanation: 
The basement membrane has a negative charge which repels albumin's negative charge
Question 5

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A
Calcium homeostasis
B
Regulation of ECF sodium
C
Synthesis of ADH
D
Regulation of body fluid volume
Question 5 Explanation: 
ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus
Question 6

A patient has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which part of the uriniferous tubule is most likely to be affected?

A
Proximal convoluted tubule
B
Collecting duct
C
Thick ascending loop of Henle
D
Thick descending loop of Henle
Question 6 Explanation: 
ADH acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to promote the expression of Aquaporin 2, which reabsorbs water from the filtrate, leading to more concentrated urine and increased hydration.
Question 7

Which of the following is not produced by the kidney?

A
EPO
B
1-alpha hydroxylase
C
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
D
Renin
Question 7 Explanation: 
Angiotensin converting enzyme is produced in the lungs
Question 8

What would be the most likely long-term consequence of chronic kidney disease?

A
Anaemia of chronic disease
B
Liver cirrosis
C
Portal hypertension
D
Cancer
Question 8 Explanation: 
In chronic kidney disease endocrine functions of the kidney are reduced/impaired, including its ability to produce EPO, which normally promotes the formation of red blood cells.
Question 9

What type of cell is present in the thick ascending loop of Henle?

A
Simple squamous
B
Simple cuboidal
C
Ciliated simple cuboidal
D
Simple columnar
Question 9 Explanation: 
Simple cuboidal cells differ from simple squamous cells in that they have a larger cell volume. Functionally, this indicates that there is increased production or absorption of certain substances by the cell. The thick ascending loop of Henle is a major absorption site for potassium, sodium and calcium ions, in contrast to the thin ascending loop where no ion absorption takes place (the cells are thus simple squamous here)
Question 10

What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?

A
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
B
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
C
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
D
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Question 11

What are the main ions contributing to the concentration gradient in extracellular fluid?

A
Calcium and bicarbonate
B
Potassium, phosphate and inorganic anions
C
Sodium and potassium
D
Sodium and chloride
Question 12

Which is not one of the four ways a substance is handled by the kidney?

A
Filtered
B
Filtered and partially reabsorbed
C
Filtered and completely reabsorbed
D
None of the above
Question 12 Explanation: 
These are all ways in which the kidney handles substances
Question 13

Inulin is one of the most accurate measures of urinary excretion rate, why is this?

A
It is filtered and partially reabsorbed so it accurately reflects what happens to substances in the filtrate
B
It is filtered only, so its concentration in the urine is proportionate to the amount in the blood
C
It is filtered and secreted, accurately representing how the kidney processes multiple substances as a whole
D
It is filtered and completely reabsorbed, reflecting how glucose is handled by the kidney
Question 14

How is urinary filtration rate calculated?

A
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate + Reabsorption rate
B
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate - Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
C
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
D
Urinary excretion rate = (Filtration rate + Secretion rate) /Reabsorption rate
Question 15

How is urinary excretion rate altered by a high reabsorption rate?

A
It is increased
B
It is decreased
C
It does not alter urinary excretion rate
D
It is not part of the equation
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