This MCQ tests understanding of basic priciples relating to kidney anatomy (microanatomical structure) and function (ex. main functions of the kidney).

Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019

Intro to the Kidney MCQ

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Question 1

What type of cell is present in the thick ascending loop of Henle?

A
Simple squamous
B
Simple cuboidal
C
Ciliated simple cuboidal
D
Simple columnar
Question 1 Explanation: 
Simple cuboidal cells differ from simple squamous cells in that they have a larger cell volume. Functionally, this indicates that there is increased production or absorption of certain substances by the cell. The thick ascending loop of Henle is a major absorption site for potassium, sodium and calcium ions, in contrast to the thin ascending loop where no ion absorption takes place (the cells are thus simple squamous here)
Question 2

What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?

A
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
B
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
C
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
D
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Question 3

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A
Calcium homeostasis
B
Regulation of ECF sodium
C
Synthesis of ADH
D
Regulation of body fluid volume
Question 3 Explanation: 
ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus
Question 4

Inulin is one of the most accurate measures of urinary excretion rate, why is this?

A
It is filtered and partially reabsorbed so it accurately reflects what happens to substances in the filtrate
B
It is filtered only, so its concentration in the urine is proportionate to the amount in the blood
C
It is filtered and secreted, accurately representing how the kidney processes multiple substances as a whole
D
It is filtered and completely reabsorbed, reflecting how glucose is handled by the kidney
Question 5

What are the three components of the glomerular filtration barrier and their filtration characteristics?

A
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), hepatocytes (filters based on size and shape), type 2 pneumocytes (filters based on size and shape)
B
Blood vessel (filters based on charge), glomerulous (filters based on size and shape), bowman’s capsule (filters based on size and shape)
C
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), basement membrane (filters based on charge), podocytes (filters based on size and shape)
D
2 layers of fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), Basement membrane (filters based on charge)
Question 6

How is urinary excretion rate altered by a high reabsorption rate?

A
It is increased
B
It is decreased
C
It does not alter urinary excretion rate
D
It is not part of the equation
Question 7

Which is not one of the four ways a substance is handled by the kidney?

A
Filtered
B
Filtered and partially reabsorbed
C
Filtered and completely reabsorbed
D
None of the above
Question 7 Explanation: 
These are all ways in which the kidney handles substances
Question 8

A patient has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which part of the uriniferous tubule is most likely to be affected?

A
Proximal convoluted tubule
B
Collecting duct
C
Thick ascending loop of Henle
D
Thick descending loop of Henle
Question 8 Explanation: 
ADH acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to promote the expression of Aquaporin 2, which reabsorbs water from the filtrate, leading to more concentrated urine and increased hydration.
Question 9

What are the main ions contributing to the concentration gradient in extracellular fluid?

A
Calcium and bicarbonate
B
Potassium, phosphate and inorganic anions
C
Sodium and potassium
D
Sodium and chloride
Question 10

Which of the following is not produced by the kidney?

A
EPO
B
1-alpha hydroxylase
C
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
D
Renin
Question 10 Explanation: 
Angiotensin converting enzyme is produced in the lungs
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