This MCQ tests understanding of basic priciples relating to kidney anatomy (microanatomical structure) and function (ex. main functions of the kidney).

Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019

Intro to the Kidney MCQ

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Question 1

What are the three components of the glomerular filtration barrier and their filtration characteristics?

A
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), hepatocytes (filters based on size and shape), type 2 pneumocytes (filters based on size and shape)
B
Blood vessel (filters based on charge), glomerulous (filters based on size and shape), bowman’s capsule (filters based on size and shape)
C
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), basement membrane (filters based on charge), podocytes (filters based on size and shape)
D
2 layers of fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), Basement membrane (filters based on charge)
Question 2

How is urinary filtration rate calculated?

A
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate + Reabsorption rate
B
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate - Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
C
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
D
Urinary excretion rate = (Filtration rate + Secretion rate) /Reabsorption rate
Question 3

Inulin is one of the most accurate measures of urinary excretion rate, why is this?

A
It is filtered and partially reabsorbed so it accurately reflects what happens to substances in the filtrate
B
It is filtered only, so its concentration in the urine is proportionate to the amount in the blood
C
It is filtered and secreted, accurately representing how the kidney processes multiple substances as a whole
D
It is filtered and completely reabsorbed, reflecting how glucose is handled by the kidney
Question 4

What would be the most likely long-term consequence of chronic kidney disease?

A
Anaemia of chronic disease
B
Liver cirrosis
C
Portal hypertension
D
Cancer
Question 4 Explanation: 
In chronic kidney disease endocrine functions of the kidney are reduced/impaired, including its ability to produce EPO, which normally promotes the formation of red blood cells.
Question 5

What type of cell is present in the thick ascending loop of Henle?

A
Simple squamous
B
Simple cuboidal
C
Ciliated simple cuboidal
D
Simple columnar
Question 5 Explanation: 
Simple cuboidal cells differ from simple squamous cells in that they have a larger cell volume. Functionally, this indicates that there is increased production or absorption of certain substances by the cell. The thick ascending loop of Henle is a major absorption site for potassium, sodium and calcium ions, in contrast to the thin ascending loop where no ion absorption takes place (the cells are thus simple squamous here)
Question 6

Which is not one of the four ways a substance is handled by the kidney?

A
Filtered
B
Filtered and partially reabsorbed
C
Filtered and completely reabsorbed
D
None of the above
Question 6 Explanation: 
These are all ways in which the kidney handles substances
Question 7

Outline, in sequence, the blood supply for the kidney beginning from renal artery to venous supply

A
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
B
Renal artery, interlobular artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, segmental artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta efferent arteriole
C
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta, efferent arteriole
D
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
Question 8

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A
Calcium homeostasis
B
Regulation of ECF sodium
C
Synthesis of ADH
D
Regulation of body fluid volume
Question 8 Explanation: 
ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus
Question 9

What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?

A
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
B
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
C
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
D
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Question 10

Which of the following is not produced by the kidney?

A
EPO
B
1-alpha hydroxylase
C
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
D
Renin
Question 10 Explanation: 
Angiotensin converting enzyme is produced in the lungs
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