This MCQ tests understanding of basic priciples relating to kidney anatomy (microanatomical structure) and function (ex. main functions of the kidney).

Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019

Intro to the Kidney MCQ

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Question 1

What type of cell is present in the thick ascending loop of Henle?

A
Simple squamous
B
Simple cuboidal
C
Ciliated simple cuboidal
D
Simple columnar
Question 1 Explanation: 
Simple cuboidal cells differ from simple squamous cells in that they have a larger cell volume. Functionally, this indicates that there is increased production or absorption of certain substances by the cell. The thick ascending loop of Henle is a major absorption site for potassium, sodium and calcium ions, in contrast to the thin ascending loop where no ion absorption takes place (the cells are thus simple squamous here)
Question 2

A patient has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which part of the uriniferous tubule is most likely to be affected?

A
Proximal convoluted tubule
B
Collecting duct
C
Thick ascending loop of Henle
D
Thick descending loop of Henle
Question 2 Explanation: 
ADH acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to promote the expression of Aquaporin 2, which reabsorbs water from the filtrate, leading to more concentrated urine and increased hydration.
Question 3

What are the main ions contributing to the concentration gradient in extracellular fluid?

A
Calcium and bicarbonate
B
Potassium, phosphate and inorganic anions
C
Sodium and potassium
D
Sodium and chloride
Question 4

What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?

A
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
B
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
C
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
D
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Question 5

Which is not one of the four ways a substance is handled by the kidney?

A
Filtered
B
Filtered and partially reabsorbed
C
Filtered and completely reabsorbed
D
None of the above
Question 5 Explanation: 
These are all ways in which the kidney handles substances
Question 6

What would be the most likely long-term consequence of chronic kidney disease?

A
Anaemia of chronic disease
B
Liver cirrosis
C
Portal hypertension
D
Cancer
Question 6 Explanation: 
In chronic kidney disease endocrine functions of the kidney are reduced/impaired, including its ability to produce EPO, which normally promotes the formation of red blood cells.
Question 7

A decrease in blood flow to an interlobular artery could result from stenosis of which artery?

A
Arcuate artery
B
Afferent arteriole
C
Efferent arteriole
D
Vasa recta
Question 7 Explanation: 
B,C,D are all distal to the interlobular artery
Question 8

How is urinary excretion rate altered by a high reabsorption rate?

A
It is increased
B
It is decreased
C
It does not alter urinary excretion rate
D
It is not part of the equation
Question 9

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A
Calcium homeostasis
B
Regulation of ECF sodium
C
Synthesis of ADH
D
Regulation of body fluid volume
Question 9 Explanation: 
ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus
Question 10

How is urinary filtration rate calculated?

A
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate + Reabsorption rate
B
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate - Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
C
Urinary excretion rate = Filtration rate + Secretion rate – Reabsorption rate
D
Urinary excretion rate = (Filtration rate + Secretion rate) /Reabsorption rate
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