Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019
Intro to the Kidney MCQ
A patient has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which part of the uriniferous tubule is most likely to be affected?
Proximal convoluted tubule
Thick ascending loop of Henle
Thick descending loop of Henle
Inulin is one of the most accurate measures of urinary excretion rate, why is this?
It is filtered and partially reabsorbed so it accurately reflects what happens to substances in the filtrate
It is filtered only, so its concentration in the urine is proportionate to the amount in the blood
It is filtered and secreted, accurately representing how the kidney processes multiple substances as a whole
It is filtered and completely reabsorbed, reflecting how glucose is handled by the kidney
Which is not one of the four ways a substance is handled by the kidney?
Filtered and partially reabsorbed
Filtered and completely reabsorbed
None of the above
What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Which of the following is not produced by the kidney?
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
What type of cell is present in the thick ascending loop of Henle?
Ciliated simple cuboidal
What are the three components of the glomerular filtration barrier and their filtration characteristics?
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), hepatocytes (filters based on size and shape), type 2 pneumocytes (filters based on size and shape)
Blood vessel (filters based on charge), glomerulous (filters based on size and shape), bowman’s capsule (filters based on size and shape)
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), basement membrane (filters based on charge), podocytes (filters based on size and shape)
2 layers of fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), Basement membrane (filters based on charge)
Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?
Regulation of ECF sodium
Synthesis of ADH
Regulation of body fluid volume
How would the basement membrane of the glomerular filtration barrier prevent the passage of albumin?
By repulsion of albumin’s positive charge
By having fenestrations smaller than the size of albumin
By having fenestrations of different shape to albumin
By repulsion of albumin’s negative charge
A decrease in blood flow to an interlobular artery could result from stenosis of which artery?