This MCQ tests understanding of basic priciples relating to kidney anatomy (microanatomical structure) and function (ex. main functions of the kidney).

Peer reviewed by Jonathan Loomes-Vrdoljak on 5 August 2019

Intro to the Kidney MCQ

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Question 1

How would the basement membrane of the glomerular filtration barrier prevent the passage of albumin?

A
By repulsion of albumin’s positive charge
B
By having fenestrations smaller than the size of albumin
C
By having fenestrations of different shape to albumin
D
By repulsion of albumin’s negative charge
Question 1 Explanation: 
The basement membrane has a negative charge which repels albumin's negative charge
Question 2

What would be the most likely long-term consequence of chronic kidney disease?

A
Anaemia of chronic disease
B
Liver cirrosis
C
Portal hypertension
D
Cancer
Question 2 Explanation: 
In chronic kidney disease endocrine functions of the kidney are reduced/impaired, including its ability to produce EPO, which normally promotes the formation of red blood cells.
Question 3

What are the main ions contributing to the concentration gradient in extracellular fluid?

A
Calcium and bicarbonate
B
Potassium, phosphate and inorganic anions
C
Sodium and potassium
D
Sodium and chloride
Question 4

What are the three components of the glomerular filtration barrier and their filtration characteristics?

A
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), hepatocytes (filters based on size and shape), type 2 pneumocytes (filters based on size and shape)
B
Blood vessel (filters based on charge), glomerulous (filters based on size and shape), bowman’s capsule (filters based on size and shape)
C
Fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), basement membrane (filters based on charge), podocytes (filters based on size and shape)
D
2 layers of fenestrated endothelium (filters based on size and shape), Basement membrane (filters based on charge)
Question 5

What property of the epithelium in the proximal convoluted tubule is related to its function?

A
The thin layer of the simple squamous epithelium allows important molecules to diffuse more easily
B
The brush border of cuboidal epithelium maximises the surface area for absorption of molecules
C
The columnar epithelium ensure quick active transport of a high concentration of important molecules across the membrane
D
The stratified squamous epithelium helps to resist the wear and tear of high volume filtrate entering the PCT
Question 6

How is urinary excretion rate altered by a high reabsorption rate?

A
It is increased
B
It is decreased
C
It does not alter urinary excretion rate
D
It is not part of the equation
Question 7

Outline, in sequence, the blood supply for the kidney beginning from renal artery to venous supply

A
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
B
Renal artery, interlobular artery, interlobar artery, arcuate artery, segmental artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta efferent arteriole
C
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobar artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta, efferent arteriole
D
Renal artery, segmental artery, interlobular artery, arcuate artery, interlobular artery, afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole, peritubular capillaries/vasa recta.
Question 8

Which of the following is not a function of the kidney?

A
Calcium homeostasis
B
Regulation of ECF sodium
C
Synthesis of ADH
D
Regulation of body fluid volume
Question 8 Explanation: 
ADH is synthesised in the hypothalamus
Question 9

Which of the following is not produced by the kidney?

A
EPO
B
1-alpha hydroxylase
C
Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)
D
Renin
Question 9 Explanation: 
Angiotensin converting enzyme is produced in the lungs
Question 10

A patient has nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Which part of the uriniferous tubule is most likely to be affected?

A
Proximal convoluted tubule
B
Collecting duct
C
Thick ascending loop of Henle
D
Thick descending loop of Henle
Question 10 Explanation: 
ADH acts on the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct to promote the expression of Aquaporin 2, which reabsorbs water from the filtrate, leading to more concentrated urine and increased hydration.
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